Expressed by many cell types, acid-sensitive outwardly rectifying (ASOR) anion channels are known to be activated by extracellular acidification and involved in acidotoxic necrotic cell death. In contrast, ubiquitously expressed volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) anion channels are activated by osmotic cell swelling and involved in cell volume regulation and apoptotic cell death. Distinct inhibitors to distinguish ASOR from VSOR anion channels have not been identified. Although leucine-rich repeats containing 8A (LRRC8A) was recently found to be an essential component of VSOR anion channels, the possibility of an LRRC8 family member serving as a component of ASOR anion channels has not been examined. In this study, we explored the effects of 12 known VSOR channel inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of LRRC8 family members on ASOR and VSOR currents in HeLa cells. Among these inhibitors, eight putative VSOR blockers, including 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), were totally ineffective at blocking ASOR channel activity, whereas suramin, R-(+)-[(2-n-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy] acetic acid (DIOA), arachidonic acid, and niflumic acid were found to be effective ASOR anion channel antagonists. In addition, gene-silencing studies showed that no LRRC8 family members are essentially involved in ASOR anion channel activity, whereas LRRC8A is involved in VSOR anion channel activity in HeLa cells.
Background and purpose: The ethacrynic acid derivative, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB) is considered to be a specific and potent inhibitor of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). In the CNS, DCPIB was shown to be neuroprotective through mechanisms principally associated to its action on VRACs. We hypothesized that DCPIB could also regulate the activity of other astroglial channels involved in cell volume homeostasis.
Key results: In cultured astrocytes, DCPIB promoted the activation of a K(+) conductance mediated by two-pore-domain K(+) (K(2P) ) channels. The DCPIB effect occluded that of arachidonic acid, which activates K(2P) channels K(2P) 2.1 (TREK-1) and K(2P) 10.1 (TREK-2) in cultured astrocytes. Immunocytochemical analysis suggests that cultured astrocytes express K(2P) 2.1 and K(2P) 10.1 proteins. Moreover, DCPIB opened recombinant K(2P) 2.1 and K(2P) 10.1 expressed in heterologous system. In brain slices, DCPIB did not augment the large background K(+) conductance in hippocampal astrocytes, but caused an increment in basal K(+) current of neurons.
Two patients with methylmalonic acidaemia due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency were studied for several years. Both exhibited at least two attacks of severe ketoacidosis, during which they excreted, in addition to methylmalonic acid, a number of abnormal compounds: 3-hydroxypropionic acid, 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-n-valeric acid, 3-oxo-n-valeric acid, 2-methyl-3-oxobutyric acid, citraconic acid andN-tiglylglycine. These compounds represent partly intermediary metabolites from the isoleucine degradation pathway and partly secondary metabolites of propionyl-CoA and tiglyl-CoA. 041b061a72